In general the stages most project methodologies go through include:
- Initiation - An idea for a project will be carefully examined to determine whether or not it benefits the organization. During this phase, a decision making team will identify if the project can realistically be completed.
- Planning or design - A project plan, project charter and/or project scope may be put in writing, outlining the work to be performed. During this phase, a team should prioritize the project, calculate a budget and schedule, and determine what resources are needed.
- Production or execution - This is where the work to deliver the product, service or wanted result is carried out. Most of the work related to the project is realised at this stage and needs complete attention from the project manager. Resources' tasks are distributed and teams are informed of responsibilities.
- Monitoring and controlling - Project managers will compare project status and progress to the actual plan, as resources perform the scheduled work. During this phase, project managers may need to adjust schedules or do what is necessary to keep the project on track.
- Closing - After project tasks are completed and the client has approved the outcome, an evaluation is necessary to highlight project success and/or learn from project history.
Trying to manage a project without project management is like trying to play a football game without a game plan. - K. Tate
Project Managers need to keep control of the projects and be in a position to report on how the project is progressing. This can best be supplied to the project sponsor/s through a series of documents.
There are many types of project documents which have been required for specific purposes over time. Those considered by PRINCE2® and the PMBoK® include:
|Benefits Review Plan||Activity-Attributes-Template|
|Communication Management Strategy||Assessment-Document|
|Configuration Item Record||Assumption-Log|
|Configuration Management Strategy||Basis-of-Estimate|
|End Project Report||Change-Log|
|End Stage Report||Change-Request|
|Product Status Account||Performance-Report|
|Project Initiation Documentation||Project-Scope-Statement|
|Project Product Description||Proposal-Template|
|Quality Management Strategy||Quality-Checklist-Template|
|Risk Management Strategy||Request-for-Proposal|